Resources - Horse Nutrition, Fencing, Equipment, Knot Tying and More


(Call 911 in an emergency)

 Land Manager News Release Links and Planning

Hospital location interactive map (includes address)


EMS location interactive map (coordinates only)


WA Dept of Health EMS & Trauma Regional and County Maps (web link)


USFS Trail Construction and Maintenance Notebook 2007     (PDF 10.4 Mb)


USFS Manuals and Guides for Trail Design, Construction, Maintenance, and Operation, and for Signs (web link)


Forest Service Publications List (link to various PDF documents)


Trail Construction References (PDF)


BCHW Saw Certification (web link)


BCHW Crosscut Saw Sharpening References (web link)


BCHW Packing a crosscut saw (web link)


Pacific Crest Trail Saw Training and Certification forum


Axe Sharpening and Maintenance (An Axe to Grind) 17.3 Mb PDF


A Course in Saw Filing - CCC 1941 9.9 Mb PDF


Sharpening Crosscut Saws 1922 8.4 Mb PDF


Advanced Tree Climbing and Rigging Training for Trail Workers 6..4 Mb PDF


Hand Drilling & Breaking Rock for Wilderness Trail Maintenance 1.8 Mb PDF


Stock Drawn Equipment for Trail Work 4.1 Mb PDF


Rigging Techniques, Procedures and Applications 3.8 Mb PDF


Rigging Handbook 6.5 Mb PDF


USFS - Handtools for Trail Work 2.3 Mb PDF


USFS Standard Trail Bridge Drawings and Design Aids (link)


First Aid certification (Olympia WA area) PDF


Care and Maintenance of Chain Saw Chaps 128 Kb PDF


Hard Hat Inspection & Maintenance 452 Kb PDF


OSHA PPE Standards 632 Kb PDF


How to Clean Your Safety Glasses 16 Kb PDF


10 Good Habits for Safety Glasses Maintenance 20 Kb PDF


Options for Safety Eyeware 64 Kb PDF


Ethanol Free Gasoline source locations statewide (for chain saws and other gas powered equipment) (Excel xls)


Trail Riding

Trail Rider Checklist (BCHA link)

 Snake Bite 1



Work Party

USFS FSH 6709.11 Health and Safety Code Handbook (chainsaw PPE see section 22.48c page 20-49)


USFS FSH 6709.12 Health and Safety Code Handbook Issuances (updates)


USFS Guide for Volunteers (link to PDF)


Tailgate Safety Briefing Cover Sheet (PDF)


Tailgate Safety Checklist - Work Party Leader (PDF)


Tailgate Safety Briefing - Work Party Members (PDF)


USFS First Aid Kit Specifications (PDF)


OSHA First Aid Kit Standards (link)


OSHA Requirements for Logging Operations - First Aid and CPR (link)


OSHA Regulations - Logging Operations (link)


WADNR First Aid Kit contents (PDF)


BCHW Trail Boss Support Information (link)


Fighting a wildfire

Backcountry Blaze - 5 tips to help keep you alive


Wildfire Preparedness For Horse Owners - Colorado State   University Extension

Lightening   storms

Backcountry Lightning Safety

Considerations for Placement of a Saddle - Saddle placement diagram one diagram two


Using a Highline properly by



Bear Identification - Grizzly   versus Black Web link (includes a test at the bottom of the linked   page)

 Camping in an area with no potable water? What to do? Here is a solution to get drinkable water for little cost, yet high volume. Ceramic filters and accessories from (build a water filtration system using two buckets, filter and spigot)

Fighting a wildfire

Backcountry Blaze - 5 tips to help keep you alive

Wildfire Preparedness For Horse Owners - Colorado State University



Grooming & Grooming Tools by


Healthy Horse Grooming Tips For Winter by


Horse Care & Grooming Tips by




Spring Shedding Tips by





Pasture Grass

     Veterinarians and nutritionists have known for some time that plants store energy in their seeds in the form of starch that can cause laminitis if the horse is introduced to grain too quickly or eats too much grain. Only recently have researchers discovered that grasses not only store energy in their seed heads as starch, they also store energy as sugar.

    In the spring, as grass is growing rapidly, it stores more sugar than it needs for growth, and horses consume the sugar as they graze. Later in the year, when the daylight and nighttime temperatures are more consistent and grass growth rates decrease, the plant uses up most of the sugar produced during the day each night.

    Here are some tips for avoiding grass founder:
     • Keep horses off lush, fast-growing pastures until the grass has slowed in growth and produces seed heads.
     • Graze horses on pastures containing a high percentage of legumes. Legumes, such as alfalfa or clover, store energy as starch, not sugar.
     • Avoid grazing horses on pastures that have been exposed to bright sunny days followed by low temperatures, such as a few days of warm sunny weather followed by a late spring frost.
     • Avoid grazing horses on pastures that have been grazed very short during the winter and are growing rapidly.
     • Keep overweight horses in stalls or paddocks until the pasture’s rate of growth has slowed, then introduce them to pasture slowly.     
     • Turn horses out on pasture for a few hours in the early morning when sugar levels are low, not at night when levels are at their highest.
     • Allow horses to fill up on hay before turning them out on grass for a few hours.



     Too much reduces the absorption of Phosphorus and Iron. If you are on a well, you need to have your water tested for Manganese levels. You can buy test kits at your local big box hardware stores but these are not as accurate as having the test done by a local lab.

    Mineral levels testing
    Water Management Laboratories
    1515 80th St E, Tacoma, WA 98404
    Manganese testing was $23 in 2010.
    Contact them for acceptable sample size and sampling procedures as well as current pricing.

Drinking Water : Iron and Manganese (Mac OSX Preview may not read this file properly and it may appear blank. You may need to install Adobe's Acrobat Reader which is free.)



     This mineral's main functions are that it is used in part to detoxify substances that are toxic to cell membranes, as well as playing a role in the control of some thyroid hormone metabolism.

    Selenium deficiency creates a myopathy, or muscle disease that causes muscle weakness. Ignored long enough it can result in death of the animal.

    Selenium toxicity can be either acute or chronic. The acute version of toxicosis creates the condition known as blind staggers. Chronic toxicity creates the condition known as alkali disease.

    The primary source is from feed (grain or foraging)



     Unlike many of the other minerals, Iodine has only one main function in your horse's is an important part of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Both (T3) and (T4) are thyroid hormones. And they aren't just any thyroid hormones...they are the two major hormones that regulate basal metabolism.

    An excess or deficiency of Iodine causes the SAME symptoms!

    When there is an excess, the extra mineral present inhibits the production of the two hormones. When there is a deficiency, not enough of the thyroid hormones can be produced.

    Iodine source is through feed, namely kelp or seaweed.



     Excess Phosphorus in the diet will cause a decrease in calcium absorption (since they compete for absorption) and a chronic calcium deficiency. Because it causes calcium deficiency, excess Phosphorus will also cause nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH).

    A deficiency of Phosphorus in the diet causes a number of bone problems. In     growing horses it causes problems similar to rickets, which is caused by a     vitamin D deficiency. In mature horses Phosphorus deficiency causes     osteomalacia, or softening of the bones.

    Mineral levels testing -
    Water Management Laboratories
    1515 80th St E, Tacoma, WA 98404
    Phosphorus testing was $41 or $48 in 2010 depending on which test is run.
    Contact them for acceptable sample size and sampling procedures as well as     which test (Dissolved Reactive or Ortho-Phosphate) should be run, and     current pricing.


Vitamin D

     The only symptom of Vitamin D toxicity (too much) is hypercalcemia, or calcification of soft tissue. However, since horse diets are low in D, and the body only makes as much D as it needs, D toxicity is pretty rare in horses.

    Vitamin D deficiency is not a huge concern in horses due to the fact that they need very little compared to most animals. Rickets is the disease that develops if a horse does not get enough D. Rickets is also called soft-bone disease and the main symptom is bone deformities, especially in the limbs.

    You won't find Vitamin D in water so a blood test by your Veterinarian is required.


Coliform Bacteria & Nitrates

     If you use a well for water you should be getting it tested on a regular basis for bacteria and Nitrate levels.

    Thurston County Water Quality Lab
    County Courthouse Bldg 1, 2nd floor
    2000 Lakeridge Dr. SW, Olympia

    See the web site for Mason County instructions.

    Lab fees are $27 for either Coliform or Nitrate.



     Needed in order to be able to transport Oxygen in the blood.

    A deficiency is not a concern for the majority of horses, especially if they have access to soil.

    Excess Iron in the horse's diet will not usually cause visible changes except in cases of very severe toxicity. However, it will decrease the level of Zinc in the blood and liver.

    Due to the fact that the symptoms of toxicity do not show on the outside, it is suggested that large doses of supplemental Iron not be given to horses, unless there is a very specific reason to believe that the diet is deficient. Supplemental Iron can be fatal to newborn foals!

    Excess Iron has many negative effects, including predisposition to infection, secondary Zinc and Copper deficiency, predisposition to     arthritis and increased risk of tendon/ligament problems, liver disease and altered glucose metabolism – including insulin resistance and overt diabetes.

    Well water can be high in Iron but the mineral can also be obtained from feed or the soil.



     Important for blood cell formation.

    Areas of New England as well as the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain have soils that are deficient in Cobalt.

    Cobalt deficiency has never been reported in horses, and in fact has never been experimentally induced either. If a Cobalt deficiency were to occur, it would result in a Vitamin B12 deficiency.

    Cobalt toxicity is very unlikely in horses, and has never been reported. This is due to the fact that Cobalt has a very low absorption rate.



     Copper is used in the creation and maintenance of elastic structures such as connective tissue and other structures. This is important in growing horses. Another important function of Copper is to help create red blood cells.

    Because Copper is associated with connective tissue and bone, a Copper deficiency usually causes bone problems. Some common problems that have been linked to a deficiency include Developmental Orthopedic Disease.

    It appears that horses are fairly tolerant of high Copper concentrations.



     The most important job of Zinc in your horse's body is to be a part of enzymes.     

    Zinc deficiency has been reported in horses, and can have some moderate consequences. Signs of Zinc deficiency include: hair loss, reduction in enzyme production, and poor appetite. However, creating a Zinc deficiency in the average horse's diet is not extremely easy, unless the horse is fed only feeds that are on the low end of Zinc content.

    Horses are one species that tolerates excess dietary Zinc very well. The maximum tolerable level has been set at 500 mg/kg of ration...close to TEN TIMES the recommended intake (depending on water content of the diet)!



Understanding   Horse Nutrition by


Proper Horse   Nutrition by



Checking the Pulse


Regular Pulse

     The normal pulse rate, most often taken by listening to the heart on the left side of the chest just behind the left elbow if using a stethoscope, is 36 to 42 beats per minute. Young stock and ponies tend to be a bit faster. If you don't have a stethoscope then take it at the mandibular artery located just under the jaw.

    Horses that are fit may have rates as low as 28, and this is not considered abnormal. However, ANY rate above 40, even 44, should be looked in the context of how the horse is feeling. Rates between 40-60 are considered "serious", but may be explained by an elevated temperature. However, rates above 80 are considered "critical" and indicate a very serious problem.

    And just like us humans, don't take the pulse immediately after exercise. And if the animal is excited that will also raise the heart rate. Let them calm down first.


Digital Pulse

     One good reason to check the digital pulse is that it can tell you if there are hoof issues going on that may not yet be visible. Those issues can be an abscess or bruise. A more serious issue is laminitis.

    Learn the difference between a regular pulse and a "bounding" one. This is where the pulse is easily felt as it is stronger. It too can be a signal of problems.





Checking Temperature

     A horse's normal body temperature is 99 - 101 F.

    Take your horse's temperature when he is healthy so you can get a normal reading for him.
    The normal temperature for the horse is 100.0 degrees. However, a horse's temperature can vary somewhat with the season. During the winter, it is not uncommon for the temperature to drop to as low as 97. But usually, we are not     concerned with temperatures that are low, but rather, trying to determine if he is running a fever from an infection.

    During the winter, any temperature above about 100.5 should be suspect, with average fevers normally running from 101.5 up to 104. The summer heat, as well as any exercise, can often raise the core temperature upward even without a fever. This must be taken into account when the assessment is made.

    A race or show horse, after intense competition, can have a core temperature up to 105. Even at rest, in the summer heat under a tree, a temperature of 101 would not be considered abnormal. So events preceding the acquisition of the temperature must be taken into account before it is interpreted. A high fever doesn't always indicate a severe condition, but if his temperature is over 102 F, you should call your veterinarian.





These four are selected as being good examples of the fencing type and are not meant as   advertisement!


Different Types of Fencing 11 options by


Detailed ElectroBraid   information by ElectroBraid®


Rail fencing by Centaur®


Vinyl fencing by





Feeding Beginner basics by



     When feeding any pelletized or cubed feed, it is best to soak the pellets. The risk of not soaking is choking. Techniques vary. Some soak in oil overnight. Some use water, enough to simply wet the pellets and are almost immediately given. For those new to stock, the topic is well worth discussing with your veterinarian.








To blanket or not to blanket? - A good cold weather question  by Colorado State University


Blankets - Choosing and Using by


Blankets,   sheets, turnouts - How to Measure by®




Knot Tying


Animated Knots (a   series of images) by


Knots by


Knots: How to Tie   by






Fitting English   (YouTube video)


Fitting Western   (YouTube video)


Saddle   Fitting Guides by






Terminology   and Buying Guide by


Horse Channel on-line guide by






Choosing a horse halter by


Measuring your Equine for a proper fitting halter by


Proper Rope   Halter Fit by





 (These Tips and videos will not make you an expert)


Packing   Tips (Outfitters Supply, Columbia Falls Montana)


Packing   Tips (Pack Saddle Shop, Moscow Idaho)


Setting up a high line (Youtube video) Includes truckers   hitch and options


Make a picket line (Youtube video) Includes sheep shank


Make rope   hobbles (Youtube video)


How to   tail tie a horse (Youtube video)


How to tie   up a horse (Youtube video)


How to tie   up a horses hind leg with a Scotch hobble (Youtube video)


Lumbar   hitch (Youtube video)


Packing   the rear quarters of an elk in a barrel hitch (Youtube video)


How to tie   a diamond knot or a lanyard knot (Youtube video)


How to tie   a quick release latigo knot on a pack saddle (Youtube video)


Bank   robbers knot, Highwayman's knot, Getaway hitch (Youtube video)


Fitting a   Decker pack saddle to a mule (Youtube video)


Tying a   diamond hitch on a mule (Youtube video)


Mantying   duffle and gear loads for the decker pack saddle (Youtube video)


Packing   using a basket hitch on a pack saddle (Youtube video)


How to   make a Crown splice or back splice (Youtube video)


How to   pack a riding saddle (Youtube video)


How to put   ropes up on a decker pack saddle (Youtube video)


Putting a   rope halter on a horse (Youtube video)


Balancing   a load on a Decker pack saddle (Youtube video)


How to put   a crowsfoot in a rope (Youtube video)


How to tie   a timber hitch (Youtube video)


How to tie   a Turks head (Youtube video)


How to   make an eye splice (Youtube video)


How to   bridle a horse and fit a bridle (Youtube video)


How to   manty a bale of hay (Youtube video)


How to tie   a highline loop (Youtube video)


How to tie   a Crows foot hitch (Youtube video)




Packing  Schools/Clinics


Western Life Outfitters