Resources Horse Nutrition, Equipment, and Knot Tying


(Call 911 in an emergency)

WA Dept of Health EMS & Trauma Regional and County Maps (web link)


USFS Manuals and Guides for Trail Design, Construction, Maintenance, and Operation, and for Signs (web link)


Forest Service Publications List (link to various PDF documents)


CHW Saw Certification (web link)


BCHW Crosscut Saw Sharpening References (web link)


BCHW Packing a crosscut saw (web link)


Pacific Crest Trail Saw Training and Certification forum


USFS Standard Trail Bridge Drawings and Design Aids (link)



Trail Riding

Trail Rider Checklist (BCHA link)



Work Party

USFS FSH 6709.12 Health and Safety Code Handbook Issuances (updates)


USFS Guide for Volunteers (link to PDF)


OSHA First Aid Kit Standards (link)


BCHW Trail Boss Support Information (link)


Considerations for Placement of a Saddle - Saddle placement diagram one diagram two


Using a Highline properly by Horse and Rider magazine




Grooming & Grooming Tools by




 Pasture Grass

     Veterinarians and nutritionists have known for some time that plants store energy in their seeds in the form of starch that can cause laminitis if the horse is introduced to grain too quickly or eats too much grain. Only recently have researchers discovered that grasses not only store energy in their seed heads as starch, they also store energy as sugar.

    In the spring, as grass is growing rapidly, it stores more sugar than it needs for growth, and horses consume the sugar as they graze. Later in the year, when the daylight and nighttime temperatures are more consistent and grass growth rates decrease, the plant uses up most of the sugar produced during the day each night.

    Here are some tips for avoiding grass founder:
     • Keep horses off lush, fast-growing pastures until the grass has slowed in growth and produces seed heads.
     • Graze horses on pastures containing a high percentage of legumes. Legumes, such as alfalfa or clover, store energy as starch, not sugar.
     • Avoid grazing horses on pastures that have been exposed to bright sunny days followed by low temperatures, such as a few days of warm sunny weather followed by a late spring frost.
     • Avoid grazing horses on pastures that have been grazed very short during the winter and are growing rapidly.
     • Keep overweight horses in stalls or paddocks until the pasture’s rate of growth has slowed, then introduce them to pasture slowly.     
     • Turn horses out on pasture for a few hours in the early morning when sugar levels are low, not at night when levels are at their highest.
     • Allow horses to fill up on hay before turning them out on grass for a few hours.



     Too much reduces the absorption of Phosphorus and Iron. If you are on a well, you need to have your water tested for Manganese levels. You can buy test kits at your local big box hardware stores but these are not as accurate as having the test done by a local lab.

    Mineral levels testing
    Water Management Laboratories
    1515 80th St E, Tacoma, WA 98404
    Manganese testing was $23 in 2010.
    Contact them for acceptable sample size and sampling procedures as well as current pricing.


     This mineral's main functions are that it is used in part to detoxify substances that are toxic to cell membranes, as well as playing a role in the control of some thyroid hormone metabolism.

    Selenium deficiency creates a myopathy, or muscle disease that causes muscle weakness. Ignored long enough it can result in death of the animal.

    Selenium toxicity can be either acute or chronic. The acute version of toxicosis creates the condition known as blind staggers. Chronic toxicity creates the condition known as alkali disease.

    The primary source is from feed (grain or foraging)



     Unlike many of the other minerals, Iodine has only one main function in your horse's is an important part of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Both (T3) and (T4) are thyroid hormones. And they aren't just any thyroid hormones...they are the two major hormones that regulate basal metabolism.

    An excess or deficiency of Iodine causes the SAME symptoms!

    When there is an excess, the extra mineral present inhibits the production of the two hormones. When there is a deficiency, not enough of the thyroid hormones can be produced.

    Iodine source is through feed, namely kelp or seaweed.



     Excess Phosphorus in the diet will cause a decrease in calcium absorption (since they compete for absorption) and a chronic calcium deficiency. Because it causes calcium deficiency, excess Phosphorus will also cause nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism (NSH).

    A deficiency of Phosphorus in the diet causes a number of bone problems. In     growing horses it causes problems similar to rickets, which is caused by a     vitamin D deficiency. In mature horses Phosphorus deficiency causes     osteomalacia, or softening of the bones.

    Mineral levels testing -
    Water Management Laboratories
    1515 80th St E, Tacoma, WA 98404
    Phosphorus testing was $41 or $48 in 2010 depending on which test is run.
    Contact them for acceptable sample size and sampling procedures as well as     which test (Dissolved Reactive or Ortho-Phosphate) should be run, and     current pricing.





     A horse's normal body temperature is 99 - 101 F.

    Take your horse's temperature when he is healthy so you can get a normal reading for him.
    The normal temperature for the horse is 100.0 degrees. However, a horse's temperature can vary somewhat with the season. During the winter, it is not uncommon for the temperature to drop to as low as 97. But usually, we are not     concerned with temperatures that are low, but rather, trying to determine if he is running a fever from an infection.

    During the winter, any temperature above about 100.5 should be suspect, with average fevers normally running from 101.5 up to 104. The summer heat, as well as any exercise, can often raise the core temperature upward even without a fever. This must be taken into account when the assessment is made.

    A race or show horse, after intense competition, can have a core temperature up to 105. Even at rest, in the summer heat under a tree, a temperature of 101 would not be considered abnormal. So events preceding the acquisition of the temperature must be taken into account before it is interpreted. A high fever doesn't always indicate a severe condition, but if his temperature is over 102 F, you should call your veterinarian.




     When feeding any pelletized or cubed feed, it is best to soak the pellets. The risk of not soaking is choking. Techniques vary. Some soak in oil overnight. Some use water, enough to simply wet the pellets and are almost immediately given. For those new to stock, the topic is well worth discussing with your veterinarian.



Knot Tying


Common Knots - 

Animated Knots (a   series of images) by


Knots by






Fitting English   (YouTube video)


Fitting Western   (YouTube video)


Saddle   Fitting Guides by






Terminology   and Buying Guide by


Horse Channel on-line guide by






Choosing a horse halter by


Measuring your Equine for a proper fitting halter by